Buildings designers and contractors have played a significant role in developing the world to a better-advanced future. They all have a great vision for advanced building designs. Implementation of these technologies often is not achieved fully and, thus, fails to meet their expectations (Karlessi, Kampelis, Kolokotsa, Santamouris, Standardi, Isidori, & Cristalli, 2017). The planners always consider and emphasize on the critical observation of aspects such as energy and the type of technology utilized. Here, we introduce a framework whose components collectively would assist in managing this issue.
Integrating IoT Sensors
An IoT refers to the Internet of Things. Through the sensors, we can operate remotely and benefit from a collection of the data obtained from the system. For instance, devices can be connected to an office or a home to monitor the refrigerators, lights and to lock doors in a smart building (Karlessi et al., 2017). We can measure several phenomena such as pressure, senses, and heat. IoT sensors are capable of reducing carbon emissions (Karlessi et al., 2017). Companies and industries use the power of IoT, which helps in curbing climate change. Moreover, Cisco and Fujitsu are creating devices that gear to propel the efficiency of energies produced (Karlessi et al., 2017).
Smart meters and Smart Grids
Here, we can introduce renewable mechanisms that act as power generators to store and manage energy. One of the applicable methodologies is the use of operational intelligence (OI). It works on the timeframe intelligence data. It is also responsible for managing and analyzing the performance of the power array in the most efficient way (Karlessi et al., 2017). OI mechanism gives room to choose a secured area. It makes the operations in the array efficient hence accepting the power supplied from external sources of energy, eliminating any problems, and ensuring that the grid system is always stable (Karlessi et al., 2017). Smart meters contain functions that provide data and alert their users on providing energy requirements and can be joined to modern tariff types to give users’ participation.
Building Energy Management System (BEMS)
A building involving different energies has been constructed using renewable energy sources (RES). They dispatch the materials used into two varying timescales to curb unexpected RES accompaniments (Karlessi et al., 2017). It has been developed to fit specific time durations such as fifteen minutes – one hour. BEMS is made in gradually diminishing erratic horizon and quadratic programs in the initial and final stages. Carbon tax and degradation expenses have been included in the overhead costs where the environment is uncertain. They monitor and meter mechanisms regarding the general climate in a premise (Karlessi et al., 2017). It can be regarded as a cheap alternative that can significantly reduce carbon emissions due to the application of modernized appliances.
They involve the production of electricity and heat from a specific source. Energy is obtained from renewable sources like biomass. The cogeneration systems apply to a variety of operations and technologies. It deploys the use of turbines that drives alternators to produce electricity. Heat lost during the process is harvested into the boilers, and it can be harnessed to increase the level of steam used in industries for heating and cooling (Karlessi et al., 2017). Big entities such as hospitals, hotels, schools can benefit from this method. The method of producing electricity is carbon-free and thus helps to promote energy efficiency and carbon neutrality.
Karlessi, T., Kampelis, N., Kolokotsa, D., Santamouris, M., Standardi, L., Isidori, D., & Cristalli, C. (2017). The concept of smart and NZEB buildings and the integrated design approach. Procedia Engineering, 180, 1316-1325.