Criminal acts have significantly reduced since the invention of the idea of police patrolling in the 13th century. The United States of America has invested around 2 billion dollars to fund the uniformed police patrol operation annually in the 20th century. The cases of crimes reduced significantly until lately when the challenges facing police patrol emerged. In 1930, a researcher named Bruce Smith established that the police patrol practices were deficient in scientific affirmation and that few policemen gave it the attention it deserves. In early 1962, the crime cases started increasing sharply, with unattended offenses becoming a common challenge (George, 2020). These solitary crimes were due to failure to acquire correct and sufficient data during an investigation or lack of appropriate methods of interpretation of the available data. To curb these challenges, The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment was conducted in the year 1972 under the stewardship of the police department.
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment arose within the Kansas City Police Department in the year 1971. This experiment was based in Kansas because, in 1971, Kansas City had undergone innovation and upgraded operations and working environment, making it the country’s more advanced police department. It was agreed by the department, together with the police assessment team, that the exercise will be purely experimental, and Kansas City Police Department data will be utilized alongside data from the field that will be collected (Kelling et al., 1974). A decision was reached out that the whole experimental exercise will be under the supervision of both the department and delegates of the foundations to ensure the rights for the experimental conditions are reserved. Regarding the agreement reached out by the Kansas City Police Sector and police foundation, police substratum agreed to carry out an experiment lasting for eight months because the noted crime cases did not attain unsatisfactory levels within the area under investigation. The investigations would commence for the next four months if no significant difficulties developed.
The experiment involved differentiation in the limits of scheduled preventive patrol in about 15 Kansas City police departments. Preventive police surveillance was withdrawn in the five reactive beats and directed to respond to phone calls if any service was required. On the other five beats, the preventive survey was maintained with only one car per policing. The remaining guard was beefed up to twice or thrice from its average level by issuing more police cars. Several hypotheses were established for quantification. Some of the theorems include finding out whether the noted crime data is independent of the magnitude of policing, establishing whether, regardless of the extent of patrol beating, civilians’ behavior will not be affected due to fear.
After the experiment and successful carrying out of the three different patrol situations, it was established that crime was not affected by the three policing conditions. Police service administration and civilians’ sense of security in techniques the public, and the officers often presume they do. As evident from the survey, different experimental circumstances had no immediate impact on civilians, intruders, and auto thefts. It was also concluded that there were no defined patterns at the rate at which criminal cases were noted across all the different experimental circumstances (George, 2020). The experiment results directly implicate the police force even today; most police today spend most of their time participating in activities that do not relate to their duties. Due to little influence of the police force among the civilians, there is no effect on the crime level even when the police force is beefed up.
Since there was no reasonable disparity between the three policing conditions seen from the experiment, it is not worth the distribution decision to be taken into practice. The fact crime rates remained constant, and citizens were not satisfied with the police’s response even in the reactive beats, the method was not helpful and should not be relied on. Therefore, further research should be done so that a significant change is attained.
The “Broken Windows” Theory
The “Broken Windows” theory is a criminological postulate that argues that neighborhood disorganization results in fright and leads to some serious crimes. The idea majorly aims at minor offenses such as noisy civilians, vandalism of public and personal property, footpath and public littering, or a broken window on a derelict house, which will significantly assist in curbing major crimes from occurring. Wilson and Kelling believed that serious crime is aroused due to minor disorders. If small disruptions are acted upon, then significant crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery will not happen (Friedersdorf, 2020). The postulate also adds that action against the minor disorder will breed fear amongst the citizen and get convinced that it is unsafe to engage in any criminal activity.
Although the theory is utilized by education and law implementation sectors, “Broken Windows” has faced various criticisms. Some critics argue that there is a minimal chance that a minor disorder will translate to a serious crime when left unattended. Another disapproval is that the theory must explain that disorder results in terror. That fear results in the breakdown of social command and that this disintegration of social orders results in a crime. Eventually, crime should be explained to increase minor offenses. The theory should be considered valid since its effectiveness when Wesley Skogan established particular kinds of chaos directly linked with various types of major crimes.
In New York City, in the 1990s, the security department under the stewardship of Bratton William put the “Broken Windows” theory into practice. He zeroed down to minor crime offenses arresting public drinkers and city prostitution, among others (Friedersdorf, 2020). When Bratton stepped out of office in 1966, crimes cases dropped to 40 from 60 percent, and murder cases dropped by half from their initial rate. From this positive outcome realized over a minimal period by Bratton, the theory can be considered adequate and be put into practice. The method can be regarded as valid because it affects the positive outcome as per the Bratton trial; a significant change was realized, rendering the technique beneficial.
The Bahamas is made up of 700 islands covering 2400 acres of land with favorable weather condition. The excellent climate and magnificent view at the beach make the Bahamas my favorite place. The Bahamas is a tourist destination with tropical islands encompasses by the navy blue waters. The islands also offer sand beaches for tourists in the summertime (“The Bahamas – Country Profile,” 2021). The country has national park includes the Inagua National Park, which has flamingoes located in the southern Bahamas. The national park is on UNESCO as one of the world legacies.
The Bahamas offers activities for tourists ranging from waters sports, sailing activities, sport fishing, and diving. With these activities, the Bahamas turns out to be one of the most fantastic tourist destinations globally. Today’s Bahamas is one of the many summer vacation centers that attracts many tourists, estimated to double the number of its population. There are also extended services offered in the quipped hotels in the Bahamas; various foods and drinks are provided, including cocktails and traditional foods such as sushi and lasagna (“The Bahamas – Country Profile,” 2021). The country has well-equipped social amenities, including the schools such as The University Bahamas and various well-built hospitals.
The country has a stable political system making it a peaceful place that favors visitors. The Bahamas is a constitutional parliamentary state governed by democracy, with the head of state being Queen Elizabeth II. The government is headed by the prime minister, appointed based on a more significant number in the senate. The parliament consists of a senate appointed by the prime minister and the assembly members elected by the people. The political peace and serenity of the country make the Bahamas one of my favorite destinations in the world.
Inspiration of Both Politics and Religion to Terrorism
It is undoubtful that terrorist across the world is directly affected by religious and political ideologies. Religion is seen as a factor that plays a vital role that is determining political fate. It can be noted that terrorism, religion, and politics are intermingled directly or indirectly, resulting in another. Religion can be a fueling factor for both evil deeds and good. During the European wars, it was noted that the Portuguese were incited by politics, their international enemy, religion, theory, and the total honor of it. It is evident today that people from specific religious backgrounds may team up and organize terrorism attacks to a particular country with the claims of perhaps being marginalized (Tarlow, 2017). Internal wars have been noted between people of a different religion for various reasons, including being marginalized politically.
Politics is another major inspiration of terrorism; it is noted that political differences cause war and terrorism. Due to failure for a particular group subscribing to the same political background or dissatisfaction with the election results, their leader may incite a rivalry against the winning parts. This invitation translates to terrorism leading to the killing of people and destruction of resources. Many intellectuals and political examiners argue that terrorism is due to the unavailability of economic opportunity (Tarlow, 2017). For instance, according to Sultan Mehmood in his journal ‘Dawn,’ he argues that relating unemployment with the violation and describing the maximum punishment means had assisted Gary Becker in winning an accolade in economics.
Politicians may link terrorism to lack of economic chance; in the recent study about terrorism, it was legitimate to study the increased level of poverty that may lead to a rise in the degree of terrorism. Numerous political leaders and scholars have supported this idea, and former Unites States of America President Bush stated that the fight against scarcity is hope for the eradication of terrorism levels. Bush was an influential supporter that absence, lack of knowledge and longing, resulted in civilians turning to be terrorists. In the book, Tarlow (2017) wrote about athletics and safety, he said that terrorist, just like any other challenges does not exist as monolithic but can transform into different things. The characteristic of terrorism can display commonalities and can also unveil disparities. Therefore, religion and politics and considering the nonreligious and nonpolitical factors can lead people to dedicate their lives to terrorism courageously.
Friedersdorf, C. (2020). Apply Broken-Windows Theory to the Police. The Atlantic. Web.
George. (2020). The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment. National Police Foundation. Web.
Kelling, G. L., Pate, T., Dieckman, D., & Brown, C. (1974). The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment: A Technical Report. Washington, DC: Police Foundation.
The Bahamas – Country Profile – Nations Online Project. (2021). Nations online. Web.
Tarlow, P. (2017). The interaction of religion and terrorism. Web.