The mind plays a critical role in the normal functioning of a human being and survival. It performs different functions including sensing, thoughts, feelings, and desires. Therefore, the mind can be defined as the establishment of an individual’s intellectual or mental capacity. It constitutes several cognitive skills such as auditory and visual processing, imagination, attention, judgment, logic and reasoning, perceptions, memory, and coordination (Zimmerman 0:51). The mind is categorized into conscious and subconscious processes (Bubolz and Lee 687). Since the body and mind are mutually dependent, it is important to elaborate on the mind-body problem.
The mind-body problem is the dilemma in discerning the connection between brain and physique. It appears when the two are examined as specific, established on the assumption that they differ in nature. The mind and the brain directly connect and rely on each other; for instance, the brain is part of the body and they can be considered similar or different (Plantinga 0:44). The mind involves mental processes, thought, and consciousness, while the body constitutes the physical aspects of the brain neurons and how the brain is structured (Zimmerman 1:14). Individual actions portray the connection between the body and the mind, that is, the mind suggests, and the body illustrates.
Substance dualism states that there is an actual difference between the mind and the brain with reviews. The mental phenomena of a human are categorized as a non-physical component. It states that there are physical and non-physical things in the body of a human. Substance dualism has been categorized into two: Platonic/Cartesian dualism and Aristotelian/Thomistic dualism (Meixner 124). Platonic dualism states that the mind has bodies that constitute a variety of materials. It classifies the physical body and the soul as different parts and that when one dies, it separates and lives one behind. For instance, the example of a car owner and the car, when the owner dies, the car is left behind. Aristotelian/ Thomistic dualism states that the mind is different but connected in a way. For instance, in the injury case, when one gets injured in the body, it is them that have been hurt.
Functionalist physicalism affirms that the main determinant of the mental states it is the task that the particular thing does. The internal structure does not qualify to be a mental condition but rather causal associations to sensory stimulations, other mental states, and behavior (Bubolz and Lee 689). According to the theory, humans experience pain through C-fiber stimulation, which is the pain that causes grieve in the body.
Property dualism theory states that the mind has different categories in material substance. It says that when one dies, the connection ends then hence making it different from substance dualism. The theory divides the categories into two, specifically mental and physical properties. The mental property is dependent on the physical property of the human body. The mental state is considered a non-physical, exclusive aspect of the brain condition.
The type of identity, also called reductive materialism, affirms that mental events can be categorized and associated with various physical events in the brain. Following Bubolz and Lee, the theory has been applied in better understanding one’s level of participation in violent activities for an individual’s gang career (690). The theory also establishes that human experiences are a portion of the brain’s processes.
In my perspective, I believe property dualism is more appropriate. It elaborates the part of the human and is practical. For instance, the mind, soul, and spirit are different but work together in real life. Additionally, the theory is scientific based, and today we live in a world of science and not religion. The dependence of mental properties on physical properties is true. For instance, when one feels sick, both the physical and mental properties will feel the sickness. The theory stands a position for the philosophical answer to the mind-body problem. Since it is experienced in day-to-day life, it can relate to the mind-body problem and get a precise answer. The theory is practical since the physical explanation of our experience when we have a visual experience is connected to the qualitative nature of that distinct experience. It proves the theory as different kinds in one materialism.
The scientific nature of property dualism rather than religion proves its strength. According to Meixner, the theory outlined is not only compatible with science but connects with it (122). The study of the functions of the human body and how it operates is scientific. Therefore, the theory is evident in the normal functioning of the body. Additionally, it is the physical component that sends the signal to the mental component proving that the mental component is dependent on the physical component. For instance, when a person wants to begin a workout and get results after some time, the physical activities involved are signaled with the brain. The reasoning of the brain is derived from physical reasoning through virtual experiences and actions. Moreover, people have different experiences although the mental states can be similar, pain can be felt differently.
Physical theory concept on different categories in one materialism makes it preferable. The human body is made of one person but varied parts. These parts work together to ensure the normal functioning and survival of humans. Moreover, when one part becomes complex, it impacts the other parts. Functioning of different parts as one is the physical theory concept. For instance, during the growth phase of life, the brain structures become complex, impacting the mental properties such as thoughts where a child becomes more intelligent while growing.
Physical dualism escapes the problem of mental caution since its one type. It is evident because the categories are in one hence communication is from one to another kind. The mental events duly rely on physical events thus avoiding mental caution. The dependence of mental components on physical components ensures that mental caution is unachieved. Additionally, according to the theory, the mental components are categorized as the non-physical properties of the physical world. Since the theory has specific physical and mental properties, mental caution occurrences are less expected. White preserves that mental events rely on their physical bases in a way that the causation of a physical effect by a mental event (1799). However, its physical base does not require the generation of any troublesome form of causal overdetermination. Therefore, physical dualism has fewer chances of causing mental causation.
In conclusion, the mind-body problem has been in debate for several years and philosophers have initiated different theories to support it. However, depending on the theories, the answers rely on the philosopher. The debate seems to be conclusive when the theories are well understood. Additionally, these theories can be implemented in various fields to confirm their uses and how it works. Implementation of the theories in different fields will help philosophers find the most appropriate answer to the mind-brain problem. Therefore, in concluding these theories, the philosophers should be conscious and have enough evidence and proof of the chosen theory. The mind-body problem can then be satisfying depending on the theory and perspective.
Bubolz, Bryan F., and Sou Lee. “Putting In Work: The Application of Identity Theory To Gang Violence and Commitment.” Deviant Behavior, vol. 40, no.6, 2019, pp. 690-702.
Meixner, Uwe. The Two Sides of Being: A Reassessment of Psycho-Physical Dualism. Mentis, 2021.
Plantinga, Alvin. Is the Person All Material? Closer To Truth, 2021, Web.
White, Ben. “Metaphysical necessity dualism.” Synthese vol.195, no. 4, 2018, pp. 1779-1798.
Zimmerman, Dean. Why a Mind-Body Problem? Closer To Truth, 2021, Web.