Buxton is a long established spa town located in Derbyshire, in England. A tourist destination is a township, urban city or any place which houses one or many attractions for visitors to that place. In the new tourism marketing age the primary focus of marketers is on targeted tourists who need to be attracted to a certain tourist destination. The key factors linked with organization of an event can be regarded as event location, target audience, media coverage, and infrastructural issues. In this context Events are used as a means of tourism. In course of the event, the destination receives a good amount of media coverage and is exposed to alternative advertising channels. In addition, the partakers in the events and the event attendees both visit the tourist venues of the destination and also join in the affairs of the event which draws in good amounts of revenues for the tourist destination as well as helps the economy on a national scale. Consequently event organization can be one of the most influential means to draw in more tourists and increase the inflow of tourism driven revenues for a particular destination. In basic terms, events plays the role of a key attraction for visitors from outside the local as well as neighbouring communities and impels tourists to stopover at the venue and spend on lodging, provisions and pursue leisure activities offered by the tourist destination. The key aspects in tourism marketing – Image and Brand are two much interconnected features. A destination image plays a very important role in the process of developing and nurturing a brand identity for the particular tourist destination and the brand is also said to have an influence on certain images in the minds of tourists about the destination. From the tourist destination perspective, there have been a number of different definitions provided by different researchers with reference to destination image. Millman and Pizam in their study portray destination image as the totting up of tourism experience-oriented features.
The paired up branding approach of two separate entities, to be precise, destination and events is very responsive in character. The process can result in a constructive image transfer or may even lead to pessimistic image transfer. Simply coupling the events and destination brands is not enough to create a successful co-branding strategy. What is imperative in this context is that which destination is to be matched up with which event. It is necessary to reflect on the events brand’s correlation with the destination brand to construct optimized solutions (Kim and C.T. Allen, 1996; Van Auken and Adams, 1999). Nevertheless extensive study on the available literature on the subject of event branding reveals that it is not always necessary for an event to sport a brand name.
Buxton is a long established spa town located in Derbyshire, in England. It is the highest elevated amongst all other market townships across England. Buxton is positioned in close proximity to the county peripheries of Cheshire in the west and Staffordshire towards the southern side. Established in the form of an individual municipal borough till the year 1974, Buxton was subsequently combined with other regional authorities including the Glossop area, situated principally towards the northern end, to establish the local government district and borough of High Peak under the jurisdiction of the Derbyshire county council. Buxton also comes under the sphere of authority of the Greater Manchester County as a result of its close propinquity to the region. Buxton boasts of being home to the Poole’s Cavern, a widespread limestone grotto –a major tourist attraction, and also to the St Ann’s well, which is provided for by the geothermal spring present in the area, and is the source for the bottled water business whose products are marketed and sold worldwide by the Buxton Mineral Water Company. In addition, the Buxton Opera House is located in this township, which plays host to a number of musical and theatrical events every year. The Devonshire Campus of the University of Derby is also located in one of the major heritage buildings of the town. Other key tourist attractions are the two motorcycle speedway sports stadiums, two golf courses, in addition to a striking pedestrian shopping mall. The town has a population of approximately 25,000 citizens. It has a varied economic structure with limestone excavation, tourism industry and the business of bottled water sourced from the local spring waters marketed and traded by the Buxton Mineral Water Company being the primary sources of revenues for the town. The town experiences a sultry humid type of weather with average temperatures lying around the 8 degrees mark and is referred to by the residents as a ‘top coat colder’. The place has enjoyable weather conditions with warm and moist summers and moderate winter chills, which cuts down the extremities of the climatic conditions.
The Peak District is a highlands region located in central and northern England, lying primarily in the northern parts of Derbyshire, and to some extent also in parts of Cheshire, Greater Manchester, Staffordshire, and the southern and western regions of Yorkshire. The region has a close proximity to Buxton which is often referred to as “the gateway to the Peak District National Park”. The greater parts of the district come under the Peak District National Park, whose name in the year 1951 granted it the status as the earliest national park across the British Isles. With an approximated 22 million tourists visiting the region every year, the Peak District is considered to rank only second amongst the most-visited national parks all across the globe after the Mount Fuji National Park located in the country of Japan. The tourism industry is the most significant local employment provider for Park residents contributing 24% of the total employment opportunities. Apart from this the manufacturing sector provides 19% and quarrying industry contributes 12% of employment openings. A mere 12% work in agricultural industry.
The main aim of the dissertation is to evaluate and analyze the role of events in attracting tourist to the Peak District and Buxton.
The major objective of this dissertation is:
- To determine the reason for the basic advantage of events in attracting tourist to the Peak District and Buxton.
- To determine how the short-term events in a region has led to the flourish of tourism of the entire system.
- To enable the readers to understand the advantages of long-term advantage of events in the context of hospitality industry.
In light of the significance of tourism in these areas from the economic perspective this paper investigates into the role of events for attracting tourists by means of adopting a proper course of research work. Further the paper also looks to study various other aspects imperative in the process of drawing tourists to these regions, compare various research about type of tourists visiting Peak District area, introduce and describe the regions of Buxton and Peak District and explain why this places are interesting for tourists.
A tourist destination is a township, urban city or any place which houses one or many attractions for visitors to that place. These attractions might manifest in the shape of picturesque spectacles, traditional culture, leisure activities, shopping discounts, good food, excursion activities etc. Such attractions are exploited by locals or other businesses to collect revenues from the visitors. It is important to note that each traveller has a number of predisposed perceptions with reference to a particular destination which he may have learned about from sources accessible to them such as advertisements, the Internet, references from a relatives and friends or information provided in a travel book. Such perceptions give rise to an image about the destination which can be affirmative or pessimistic and is regarded as a key element in the decision making process of travellers when they contemplate on their destination choices. This observation is in line with the findings of prior studies carried out on this subject which state that destination image is a vital deciding factor (Ritchie, J. and Couch, G. 2000) and plays an essential part in the destination choosing process (Gunn 1972, LaPage and Cormier, 1977) for tourists.
In this context there are a number of features that tourist venues offer with the intention of attracting more tourists to a particular destination. The organization of events has emerged as one of the most successful attributes in the list of such attractions. Events may be portrayed as a package designed with an apparent concept in mind which is in line with the destination image, and is subsequently adapted or tailored according to the consumer demands in order to realize the goals associated with orchestrating that event. In the new tourism marketing age the primary focus of marketers is on targeted tourists who need to be attracted to a certain tourist destination. The key factors linked with organization of an event can be regarded as event location, target audience, media coverage, and infrastructural issues.
Events are used as a means of:
- Delivering important messages with regards to the destination;
- Building a positive cultural image in front of a wide audience.
- Creating a platform for interaction amongst various sections of tourists as well as locals.
With advances on the technological front and the ever developing advertising settings, events have also started drawing in a great deal of media coverage. In this framework an event and the destination may be considered as two separate entities but in a sense, mutually supporting each other. In course of the event, the destination receives a good amount of media coverage and is exposed to alternative advertising channels. In addition, the partakers in the events and the event attendees both visit the tourist venues of the destination and also join in the affairs of the event which draws in good amounts of revenues for the tourist destination as well as helps the economy on a national scale. Consequently event organization can be one of the most influential means to draw in more tourists and increase the inflow of tourism driven revenues for a particular destination. The type of events may be varied and may manifest in the shape of MICE (meetings, incentives, convections and exhibitions), sporting tournaments, and cultural shows or perhaps even award functions. These forms of event have given rise to a new form of tourism dubbed as Event tourism. Even though this is a relatively newer tourism model, it is gaining popularity and being widely recognized. Event tourism holds a significant potential to make valuable contributions to the economies both on a local as well as national scale. In basic terms, events plays the role of a key attraction for visitors from outside the local as well as neighbouring communities and impels tourists to stopover at the venue and spend on lodging, provisions and pursue leisure activities offered by the tourist destination. Events, in addition, facilitate impregnation of a positive image into the psyche of the tourists who are yet to visit the place and undeniably catch their notice to the destination by means of extensive media coverage.
The key aspects in tourism marketing – Image and Brand are two much interconnected features. A destination image plays a very important role in the process of developing and nurturing a brand identity for the particular tourist destination and the brand is also said to have an influence on certain images in the minds of tourists (Jenson and Kotler) about the destination. From the tourist destination perspective, there have been a number of different definitions provided by different researchers with reference to destination image. Hunt (1997) defined a national image as people’s perceptions about the countries in which they do not live. Millman and Pizam in their study portray destination image as the totting up of tourism experience-oriented features.
The process of image transfer is given much importance when any advantage that tourist identify through events is translated into a profitable proposition for the host venue (Meyvis, Janiszewski 2004; Supphellen, Eismann and L.E. Hem, 2004). The paired up branding approach of two separate entities, to be precise, destination and events is very responsive in character. The process can result in a constructive image transfer or may even lead to pessimistic image transfer. Simply coupling the events and destination brands is not enough to create a successful co-branding strategy. What is imperative in this context is that which destination is to be matched up with which event. It is necessary to reflect on the events brand’s correlation with the destination brand to construct optimized solutions (Kim and C.T. Allen, 1996; Van Auken and Adams, 1999). The brand image of events as well as destination needs to be thoroughly analyzed as both play a central role when they are coupled together and presented by means of a co-branding scheme (Kim and Allen, 1996; Van Auken and Adams, 1999; Koernig and Page, 2002; McDaniel, 1999; Till and Busler, 2000). A mismatch on account of incompatibility of the two separate brands may result in the formation of a negative brand identity and may induce a pessimistic image transfer. But in cases where the destination plays host to an appropriate and tailored event then it may be used as a means of brand extension. In the recent past a number of events have been organized which have been designed in a manner that is closely correlated with the corresponding brand of the destinations’ and are identified with the hosting destination’s brand identity, for example the Dubai duty free shopping festival. Such events are usually tagged with the name of the host venue to give it a sense of bonding with the destination’s brand image. Nevertheless extensive study on the available literature on the subject of event branding reveals that it is not always necessary for an event to sport a brand name. It can add value to the host destination’s brand in the form of an attribute that provides the destination with a sense of distinctiveness in its individuality and makes it a more popular choice for tourists to visit (Meyer and Sathi, 1985; Ahang and Markman, 2001). Moreover, by stepping up the frequency of event being organised, the limitations of the interim impacts of the events may be mitigated. There are several varied approaches and policies through which events may be made use of as an effective instrument to develop and add value to a brand destination (Jago et. al. 2003). Some factors like societal support, co-operative planning initiatives, and media endorsement are essential in order to capitalize on event organisation at a particular destination. Such factors explicitly facilitate the transferring of brand image amongst the two separate entities. Obviously, the tendency of selecting a particular destination augments the frequency of visitation (Liping et. al, 2003). In this context, events impart a feeling of likeability and it builds up excitement among travellers and provides them with a reason to come back to visit the destination in future again (Kaplanidou, Kyriaki 2007).
It can well be said that the purpose of this literature review is to provide evidence of prior research managed in regard to sales and management strategy relating to the movement of social events specified in PEAK DISTRICT AND BUXTON. This is to assist the researcher in informative matters for understanding positive and negative aspects to the use of social events from the perspective of the potential consumers or visitors. It also provides aspects of security measures related to social events and its use including probable annual charges, installation, maintenance and up gradations whether in the hands of manufacturers, retailers or wholesalers. This exploration of literature provides a broader examination of each of the aspects that concern security system by the help of social events use and abuse by consumers or visitors from sociological parameters (Banyard, 2005) and thus it would be more relevant to analyze and evaluate the potential of the events with effective market penetrative strategies as specified in Banyard’s Ethical Issues and Guidelines in Sociology.
One of the major aspect of a social event is its managerial perspective and to acquire enough information on the subject the book Weak Links: Stabilizers of Complex Systems from Proteins to Social Networks by Peter Csermely would be extremely helpful. Another book on the subject would be very useful and if this book is directed towards data gathering and management relating to social events and such a book is Event History Analysis: Regression for Longitudinal Event Data by Paul D. Allison. A text on Sociology and Social Research would be very relevant in this context and Handbook of the Life Course by Jeylan T. Mortimer and Michael J. Shanahan would be exceptionally helpful. Event History Modeling: A Guide for Social Scientists by Janet M. Box-Steffensmeier and Bradford S. Jones is another text that is based on Analytical Methods for Social Research and this too would be very helpful.
On Purposeful Systems: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Individual and Social Behavior as a System of Purposeful Events by Russell Ackoff and Fred Emery and Social Mechanisms: An Analytical Approach to Social Theory by Peter Hedström and Richard Swedberg are two books on Studies in Rationality and Social Change and deals with “explanations of most concrete social events or states require resort to several elementary mechanisms; one is…”. (Hedström, 2006, 21) An Applied Social Research Methods related book would also be relevant in this context and such a book would be Event History Analysis by Kazuo Yamaguchi. Though this book was published in 1991 it is still relevant for the study. A similarly relevant but old publication is Social Work Records by Jill Doner Kagle and this too is important because it provides a lot of data on the subject. From the social parameters it should be stated that two books would be very important in this context. Corporate Social Responsibility Across Europe by André Habisch, Jan Jonker, Martina Wegner, and René Schmidpeter and The Study of Social Problems: Seven Perspectives by Earl Rubington and Martin S. Weinberg would serve the purpose.
One of the most valuable texts for this literature review is Michael Hutt and Thomas Speh’s Business Event Management: A Strategic View of Industrial and Organizational Markets. This is a very important piece of text because it deals with the various aspects of marketing perspectives of social events that are the most relevant feature of the dissertation. This book not only analyze and evaluate the marketing perspective of a given market segment but also deals intricately into the parameters of the consumers and especially the notion of the social context. This part is very relevant to the topic as the Social events of PEAK DISTRICT AND BUXTON require deep insight of consumer perspective on the product as a potential consumer or visitors. Furthermore, this book presents a wonderful overview of the marketing strategies in terms of the control of the business. This is important because it is not only important to penetrate the market and occupy a proper market segment but it is more important to sustain it and set momentum to the procedure for a long term benefit. Another very important aspect of this book is its deep understanding of the management of selling functions relating to personnel under marketing communications of business. It presents a thorough insight of the subject with several essential and important models that are important for sustainability of the business along with its social implementations. This part not only incorporates the customer relationship within the management system but also provides enough evaluation of the strategic approaches relating to deployment analysis. Thus it can well be mentioned that this book by Michael Hutt and Thomas Speh presents a wide range of information on the aspects of management of sales forces and it is an invaluable source of information for the study in connection to event management and social events of PEAK DISTRICT AND BUXTON. (Hutt & Speh 2001)
While Michael Hutt and Thomas Speh’s text is more general principals of marketing techniques Urban Geography by Tim Hall deals directly with the social events. It is true that the book mainly deals about the social events of the United States but it is relevant for the study simply because it provides a thorough insight story about the market segment of the social events and security services in the US. It can be stated that though the market of US is different from that of the market segment of the PEAK DISTRICT AND BUXTON there are certain principals that stay true under all conditions. For example the operating result of a certain product can be translated into an alien market if the variables are taken well into consideration. Similarly, the security principals of the US can well be utilized for the PEAK DISTRICT AND BUXTON markets too. (Hall 2006) However, it can well be mentioned that the element that was lacking in Hall’s book can be complemented with Michael Pacione’s Britain’s Cities: Geographies of Division in Urban Britain. Though this book is not very recent, as it was published in 1997, it is a very important text in the aspect of analysis of the demographics of United Kingdom and the implementation of sociology. This book is specifically targeted towards the different aspects of social system and a complete evaluation this book would enable the study to understand the various aspects of social events. (Pacione 1997)
Thus once the social events of the Southern Regions of PEAK DISTRICT AND BUXTON is evaluated and understood it becomes important to understand both the organizers’ and customers’ perspective of this form of social event to indulge into the characteristics of sociology as this would help the study understand the inner formulation of the system and help the study to incorporate better and effective manner. This is why it is necessary to use the information provided by Porges and Barrie in their book Design of Social Principal. This is one of latest publications incorporated in this literature review and thus it is able to provide the latest development and application related to the social context. (Barrie and Porges 2005)
Harinarayan Kumar’s Win Some, Lose None: The Approach of a Successful Salesman presents a thoughtful strategically formulated book that deals into the aspects of Social context versus Consumer Goods Markets with subsequent ethical values that lead to the better understanding of a given social event. This book is well illustrated with several graphs and data that are essential for any case study. The author also looks into the different variables of society including research and development and cognitive manufacturing techniques. The approach of the author is somewhat very aggressive and few of the models of consumer relationship could be termed as detrimental in the realistic world. This is because the author assumes too many variables to be favourable for the seller and much less variables are aligned with the consumers and the greater aspect of the society. As a result of this assumption the end result can be flawed in the material world and the cut throat competitive market. An aggressive marking can well be capable of loosing the competitive advantage in a true competitive market structure and provide a delicate definition of the social variables. However, it can be always stated that with proper and intelligent use of the formula used by Kumar the best can be obtained out of these aggressive procedures. Nevertheless, it can always be stated that the book is quite important for the study because it is able to provide a huge amount of data and information related to social events and building business relations. Furthermore, this book sets a well organized value structure that should be incorporated within the minds of the potential customers or visitors. This is an interesting approach of social science and this model can well be incorporated within the determining strategy of the social events. Another important aspect of Kumar’s book is the discussion of working relationship under the parameters of cross function. This includes compatibility, responsive behaviours and methodical communications of social respondent. This part is very interesting can well be used in the study. (Kumar 2005)
It would be relevant to mention in this context that the information and information systems are significant assets vital to supporting the operations in a social event. Thus it is essential for the social events to recognize and protect these assets. This is where, from the physical and visual perspective of the social measures and it becomes more applicable. This social system enables the management to survey and protect physical areas in and around the institution and thus help the organization to protect its vital assets. Organizations all over the world are discovering ways to perk up operational competence and service to customers by proper and extensive applications of social system related to society, which usually encouraged new social contemplations. Organizations have realized their capability of exploiting information technology will contribute in providing them a considerable competitive advantage. In this regard, in several organizations social issue related to social events is more and more being considered as an enabler, an essential step in extenuating the risks related with new applications and safeguard of organization’s computerized data. As a consequence, social is considered as a significant component in enhancing business operations by generating opportunities for using social system related to social events in ways that would not otherwise be possible.
Organizational social control related to social events concentrates on the requirement for a sociological framework that creates, maintains, and administers the social infrastructure, together with the management social forum which endows with a multi-disciplinary committee set up to discuss and broadcast social issues related to social events all through the organization. The authorization processes ensure that social contemplations are evaluated and endorsements obtained for new and customized information processing systems. The specialist information system maintains associations with independent specialists to gain access to proficiency not available within the organization. The independent review mechanisms within events allow independent evaluation of social effectiveness related to social events. The third-party access mechanisms are applied in the organization to administer third-party contacts within the organization based on business necessities. The organizational outsourcing provision should meet comprehensible contractual social requirements and its application related to social events. Companies should educate new employees in social concepts and trends in social to improve their knowledge of social issues, trends, and techniques associated with the integrity, confidentiality, and accessibility of information resources on social systems related to social events of an organization. Dealing under such parameters, the text by John Hood by the name Event Management systems would become very important article to evaluate and analyze the current as well as the future trend of the industry in relation to society.
It can always be stated that events should make available to its employees the base for applying best practices to the social requirements of an organization related to social events. The employee educating procedures should include lecture, discussion, and exercises to help the employees in improving their understanding of the predicament of securing organizational information in the vibrant environment that has been created by global connectivity and social related to social events. The companies should inevitably provide education in social concepts related to social events and trends in social system to employees like administrators, network administrators, social events systems social officers, social events systems social managers in government or private sector organizations, policy makers, systems engineers and systems developers, who are directly responsible for company’s physical and visual social and progress.
The main objectives behind event’s policy of educating employees in social concepts and trends in social is to enable its employees to recognize the challenges of protecting confidential information of the event in a global, dynamic networked systems environment, to recognize the range of weaknesses and intimidation to which an organization’s information resources may be exposed, to build up strategies and capital in order to deal with information social tribulations in relation to social events, to identify practical measures to protect and improve the social position of the organization, to suggest ways to improve promptness within organization to take action to and pull through from social incidents. The most relevant text to be considered in this respect is Davis Lamb’s Cult to Culture: Development of Civilization on the Strategic Strata. This book not only identifies the importance of education and up gradation among employees but deals deeply into the various marketing aspects directly related to social events and social systems. It provides a logistical management framework that is mostly applicable in this context. It also looks into the various aspects of e-commerce that could serve as the future of marketing strategy of social events of PEAK DISTRICT AND BUXTON. It also includes the aspects of supply chain management frameworks that are directly related to the social industry in the sense that lamb presents a model that is interesting enough as it incorporates all the critical ingredients of a chain management format through the use of partnership formulation. It also indulges deeply into the parameters of marketing strategies in the context of relationship marketing and connector indices in relation to seller and buyers. (Lamb 2004)
The most important aspect of Charles Manning’s Principals and Practices: Society Today that can be used in the study is the variables of consumer decision from the parameters of social principals. Here the prime discussion is about the approach of consumers towards the product in this case- visiting the event. When businesses use social services related to social events they have the ability to accept the loss of privacy and confidentiality by some degree. However, when businesses have access to social services they will also include the services that enable acceptance of shifted ethical values. This is the service providers’ job in accordance to manning that the business is completely convinced with the price of ethical shift and it should always be remembered to indicate the profit evoked by the use of social system concerning social events in general. The major part of this book is related to the ethical issues and consumer decision making principals it is evident that the topic should incorporate the better part of it as dealing with these essential aspects of the social events of social events of PEAK DISTRICT AND BUXTON. (Manning 2003)
Thus it could be ascertained that the focal point of this paper is to present a literature review for the project relating to the sales and management strategy relating to the movement of social events in the southern market segment of PEAK DISTRICT AND BUXTON. In this review, analysis would be done on the role that the sales and management strategy, both historically and in the context of contemporary society, in the context of the topic selected. In addition, analysis would also be done on the ethnic and cultural diversity, and legal and ethical considerations that relate because the aspects of social certainly stand on the edge of privacy and confidentiality. Lastly it would be looked upon to identify the common trends in the social and management strategy of behaviours of potential customers that appear in the literature. The literature would be used to demonstrate the importance of the topic to field as a whole.
The methodology used in this report is the qualitative method. This method tries to analyze the given data which is generally word, pictures or objects in order to gain a through understanding of certain behaviour and the different reasons that causes such behaviours. On the other hand, the quantitative method mainly involves a systematic and logical investigation of phenomenon having quantitative properties along with their relationships using numerical data. The main objective of this method is the development of a particular hypothesis or theory concerning the natural phenomenon. (Creswell 2003)
Pros and cons of Quantitative Research
- Thorough testing and validation theories are already constructed about why and how the phenomenon has occurred.
- Even before the data is collected the testing hypothesis can be constructed.
- If the data given has been based upon random samples but are of sufficient size, then the research findings can be easily generalized.
- Using this method one can generalize a research finding after it has been repeated on a number of dissimilar populations and sub-populations.
- This method is extremely useful for acquiring data which allows one to make quantitative predictions. (Yin 2003)
- Allows a quantitative researcher to construct such a situation where elimination of a number of variable that have confounding influence, is possible. Thus, one can more tenably demonstrate a cause and effect relationship.
- Collection of data using one of the numerous quantitative methods is comparatively quicker.
- Through this method we can obtain numerical data that is precise and quantitative.
- Since the data given is analyzed using some statistical software, it comparatively consumes lesser time.
- The researched results, like statistical significance, are comparatively independent of the actual researcher.
- Quantitative research has a higher credibility rate among a number of people, especially those in power, like politicians and administrators.
- This method is extremely useful when analyzing a huge number of people.
- The categories that may have been used by the researcher might not be able to actually reflect the understanding of the local constituencies.
- Since the researcher focuses more on hypothesis and theory testing instead of focusing on hypothesis and theory generation or confirmation bias, he or she may miss out on the actual phenomenon that takes place.
- The theories that may have been used by the researcher might not be able to actually reflect the understanding of the local constituencies.
- The knowledge that is produced as a result of this method is sometimes too abstract or too general for directly applying to a particular localized situation, individual or context. (Creswell 2003)
Pros and cons of Qualitative Research
- The data that is used is based on the individual categories of meaning of the participants themselves.
- This method is extremely useful when analyzing, in depth, a very limited quantity of cases.
- Using this method, researchers are able to perform cross-case analysis and comparisons.
- This method is very helpful when describing a set of complex phenomenon.
- Allows one to opulently describe the phenomenon with proper details as they are embedded or situated in their local context
- This method provides us with individual case data.
- Using this method a researcher can almost every time identify the setting and contextual factors as and how they are related to that particular phenomenon of interest.
- This method provides us with a description and through understanding of the individual’s personal experiences of a certain phenomenon being analyzed, i.e. with the insider’s viewpoint or emic’s account.
- Allows the researchers to study any dynamic processes, like documenting changes and sequential patterns
- Helps to find out how constructs, like IQ or self esteem, is interpreted by the participants. (Yin 2003)
- This method allows the researchers to employ basic qualitative methods of established theories for inductively generating an explanatory but tentative theory regarding the phenomenon being analyzed.
- In qualitative research the data used is normally gathered in naturalistic settings.
- Qualitative methods are much more responsive to the needs of a stakeholder and local situations and conditions.
- Qualitative data gathered from the words of the different classes of participants contribute to the exploration of why and how a particular phenomenon takes place.
- Qualitative researchers are particularly receptive to the changes which take place when the analysis is being conducted, mainly during any extended fieldworks, and thus, as a result of this there may be a shift in the focus of their analysis.
- We can use an important case study for vividly demonstrating the particular phenomenon to the individual reading the report.
- Helps to establish idiographic causation, i.e. establishing the causes of a specific phenomenon
- The knowledge that is produced through this method may not broadly include other settings or individuals. The findings may thus be completely unique and only relative to those who were a part of the research analysis.
- It is quite difficult to establish quantitative predictions.
- It is even more difficult to test theories and hypotheses that have a huge participant pool.
- When compared to quantitative research methodology, qualitative method takes more time in collecting the required data.
- Has a lower credibility ratter with certain commissioners and administrators of program.
- Data analysis used in this methodology normally consumes a lot of time.
- The idiosyncrasies and personal biases of the researcher can easily influence the results of the analysis. (Creswell 2003)
Pros and cons of Mixed Research
- This method can use narratives, words and pictures for adding particular meaning to the numbers. Conversely, the numerical data can also be used for adding precision to the narratives, words and pictures.
- Possesses the research strengths of both the qualitative and quantitative methods, as given above
- Allows researchers to generate and analyze an established theory.
- Since, the researcher is not limited to a specific approach or a single methodology, using this method the researcher can obtain a broader and a comprehensive array of research questions.
- The researcher can easily utilize the strong points of an additional methodology for overcoming the weaknesses present in another methodology simply by fusing both in the research analysis, i.e. by implementing the “principle of complementarily”.
- Since it is a combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods, the mixed method increases the overall ‘generalizability’ of a result.
- By converging and corroborating the findings of the analysis one can easily provide better and stronger evidence to support the conclusion, i.e. the “principle of triangulation”.
- Helps to add understanding and insight that may have been missed out during the implementation of only a single methodology
- Using qualitative and quantitative methodologies together gives us a comprehensive knowledge that is required to connect theory with practice. (Yin 2003)
- It becomes very complicated for a single researcher to perform both the quantitative and qualitative researches, on his own, mainly 2 or more methodologies are expected to be performed concurrently. Thus, for performing the mixed method one needs a research team.
- Mixed method is more time consuming then either of the quantitative or qualitative methods.
- The researcher should have proper knowledge about the multiple approaches and methods or needs to learn them so as to understand the appropriate manner of mixing them.
- Methodological purists have often contended that one must always perform researches within either a quantitative or qualitative framework instead of mixing both of them.
- Mixed method is more expensive then either of the quantitative or qualitative methods.
- Some details pertaining to the mixed method researches are yet to be fully figured out by the research methodologists, like the problems with paradigm mixing, the method of qualitatively analyzing quantitative data, procedure of interpreting conflicting results. (Creswell 2003)
Why Qualitative method is best suited for this research
Qualitative method is better suited for this research because by using this method one can properly investigate the “how” and “why” of decisions made and not just the “when”, “what” and “where”. Also, for such a research we do not have large random samples and by using the qualitative method we can totally focus on the small samples that are necessary for such a research. Also, qualitative method is better suited here since the aim of the research, i.e. fining out how the short-term bonus culture has caused instability in the management of banks, is complete and does not require us to classify or count the features as with qualitative research. Also since such a research project is in its earlier phases and we roughly know what is required, qualitative and not quantitative method is better suited in such cases. We have also seen that the design of the research paper emerges as we study the given data as with qualitative method, rather than carefully designing the entire research study even before collecting the data, as with quantitative method.
However, it should be mentioned there are certain limitations of the study. A number of people (usually senior administrators) may also insist that the consumers have no contribution to the issue. Many of them may think that consumers come into the working formulation only during the advertising scenario and never in the development plan of the marketing procedure. As a result they do not use the requisite strategic management techniques or adaptive methods that need to be exercised while developing a study such as this. However, it creates a void in the test as this limitation can be overcome by taking the subject into better mode of confidence. However, at the same time, it should also be noted that there are certain limitations regarding the methodology of the interview aspect. It could be mentioned that past history has shown that it is not always people revealing a context in a survey or interview holds much truth in the long run in general sense. This is one variable that is able to corrupt any well formulated strategically set formulations. But this again is a possibility and not the general rule. At any case it should be noted that all steps would be taken with utmost care so that such variables are not allowed to upset the basic test of market segmentation beyond a certain permissible limit. If all these parameters are well implemented there could be no reason why a long term strategy for operation in a full length marketing penetration and procedure cannot be established.
Data Presentation or Findings
A two phase data gathering approach, namely: Primary & Secondary was employed in this research initiative to collect the desirable information with relevance to the aim and objectives of this research. This research initiative makes use of the data sources to fabricate the following fundamental testimonials: respondents’ manuscripts and archival documents. Sources for the archival articles were mostly previously completed research initiatives, journals, academic text books, thesis papers and conference records which were studied extensively. The respondents’ manuscripts were composed by employing questionnaires and distributing them to a sample constituted by 327 out of town tourists attending the Annual Buxton Antiques Fair and The Great Peak District Fair. The age of the respondents ranged from 17 years to 65 years. In addition to the questionnaires some follow up interviews were also conducted.
A design of the questionnaire adopted a mixed approach including both the open-ended as well as closed-ended questions. Some questions were provided with options whereas others were open-ended used to understand the perception of the respondent on a particular issue. The questionnaire was divided into two sections with the first gathering demographic information about the tourist whereas the second section included questions pertinent to the current topic of research.
The first sections gathered information such as the name, age, address and occupation of the respondent. It also inquired about the source from which the tourist learned about the destination and was he/ she aware about the event prior to the visit. The second section consisted of the 12 following questions.
The first question asked the respondent whether it was his / her first time visit to this destination. The respondents were asked to mark on the checkboxes beside the appropriate options which were: Yes or No. The second question inquired about the respondent’s intended duration of stay. The options presented in this case were: less than a day, one to three days, four to seven days or more than a week. The third question inquired the respondent about the purpose of the visit. The options presented were: shopping, scenic attraction, cultural attractions such as museums and heritage sites and local events such as fine food fair or annual antiques fair or any other particular reason. The fourth question asked the respondent whether he/ she had ever participated or attended. If so which event was it? The fifth question asked the respondents opinion about the finest attraction in the destination. The sixth question the respondent about which event types were the most attractive for tourists in these destinations. The options presented were: musical festivals, family events, cultural exhibitions, fairs, sports events, picnics or some other kinds. The seventh question inquired about the perception of the respondent with respect to the extent of significance of events in attracting tourists to a particular destination. Here the options were: very important, important, and not at all important. The eighth question asked about other factors that the respondent thought was important. The ninth question asked the respondent to express his / her views about the events organised in these destinations. The tenth question inquired about the respondent’s frequency of participating or attending in an event. The options presented were: very often, often, sometimes, rarely or never. The penultimate question concerned the perspective of the respondent in relation to the most important feature that denotes the success of an event. And finally, the last question asked the respondent whether or not would he / she refer this destination to his family and friends. The options in this case were: most definitely, maybe or no.
In order to give the reader of this a better perspective of understanding the responses of the survey participant a brief description of the events they attended is provided.
The Annual Buxton Antiques fair is generally held in the month of May at The Pavilion Gardens, St John’s Road in Buxton. This renowned cultural event boasts of a broad spectrum of premium antiques, fine art creation and objets d’art from around the globe. The Buxton Antiques Fair has been considered to be one of the most important occasions in the event calendar of the UK art and antiques for more than four decades now. Traders and collectors of arts and artefacts from all across England and also other countries participate and attend this fair to have a look at and purchase a wide variety of first-rate historical exhibits enriched with the history of up to five hundred years. Nowadays nearly fifty antique traders display their exhibits in the attractive rooms of The Pavilion Gardens building, encircled by a picturesque setting of parks and gardens in the town of Buxton.
The Great Peak District Fair, generally held in month of October, has become grand occasion since its inception way back in 2002. The event meets with a great degree of success each year with huge numbers of tourists visiting the fair over the two days of its duration. The fair provided the visitors with an opportunity to browse through and purchase high-class articles offered by in excess of 80 exhibitioners across a ten-mile radius of the Peak District National Park. The articles put up for sale range from packs of herbal teas to hand-crafted greeting cards and handmade chocolate products and handbags. The event also comes up with a constructive opportunity for the tourism sector and provides good business prospects for businesses like eateries, diners, hotels, bars and curio shops. It also provides an ideal occasion to have a look at and purchase high quality locally made foodstuff, arts and artefacts.
Out of the 327 questionnaire distributed only 116 responses were used for analysis as these questionnaires were completely and acceptably answered. The response rate was thus 35.45% which is quite a decent response rate considering the mood and exuberance of the tourists who are engrossed in their participation in the events.
Out of these responses 78% of the respondents were first time visitors to their respective destinations are the rest were returning visitors. Most respondents described their intended duration stay as one to three days describing their visit as a weekend trip. However, some respondents expressed their desire to stay for a longer duration if permitted by their schedules. 37% of the respondents stated enjoying the picturesque settings of the region as their purpose of their visit whereas 32% described attending or participating in events as their purpose of the visit. 15% of the respondents said that cultural interests were their reason for their trip to the region. 17 % of the respondents answered affirmatively when asked if they had previously attended any events held in the region. Most respondents sated that the sheer scenic beauty of the region was the most attractive thing for tourists coming to these destinations. 53% of the respondents stated that family events were the most attractive events held in the regions whereas 32% stated that it was cultural exhibitions and fair that is the kind of event that attracts them. A staggering 63% of the respondents considered that events were a very important factor in deciding on destination choices, 12% said that it was an important consideration and 21% of the respondents disagreed. The rest said they were not sure about it.
Ethics and Risk Management
In the context of event driven tourism, the fundamental ideals and values should be taken into consideration in all decision making processes in relation to every event, phase and event processes to ensure that the practices adopted lead to effective and sustainable results. In the same way, it is also of much significance to incorporate and integrate risk management approaches with such fundamental principles.
All authorities need to strive towards a continuous development and improvement policy in accordance with the quality management principles which ensures an optimally performing industry. Creativity and innovations are considered as extremely essential factors in the design of pioneering and imaginative approaches to meet the challenges and capitalize on opportunities presented by the tourism industry driven by events. The issue of Ethics relates to the judgments and decisions and the measures adopted that is indicative of and symbolize perceptions of right and wrong. Implanted in almost all codes of conduct in the event and tourism industry combined, such norms provide a guideline for all activities and warrant integrity, justice and affability.
Risk management, over the years, has emerged a one of the most important considerations for the productivity and continued existence of any event (Turco et al, 2002: 122). In the context of the event tourism industry the procedures of risk management entail the activities such as foreseeing and estimating, avoiding or mitigating the potential financial, environmental or infrastructural threats or other problems or crisis situations arising in the course of the event which draws in tourists. Regardless of the scope and magnitude of the event, the focus on risk management strategies, loss deterrence and safety considerations should be sharp as these are critical concerns which prospective participants and attendees evaluate prior to participating in an event (Rossouw, 2000).
Levine (2002) asserts that an all-inclusive risk management policy needs to take account of the following:
- Identification and evaluation of all sources of possible risk (risk analysis).
- Avoiding or mitigating risk factors by carrying out training initiatives, safety drills and inspection measures.
- Making sure that protective funds or insurances are in place for risks which cannot be avoided.
- Effective implementation of a comprehensive risk management strategy.
Rossouw (2000: 418) states that a proper plan dealing with potential risk factors should involve not only those who design the systems that facilitate a secure and insured event but also needs to engage all those who are implicated in the plans and policies by receiving their input in the design phase itself.
Conclusion and recommendations
The study initiative that has gone into this paper proves that coupling an event with destination holds a strong possibility of some image transfer (positive or negative) on account of the consequences of co-branding. However, the effectiveness of the paired brands depends a lot on the compatibility of the two. This coupling may be with respect to product features or interests towards brand identities. This research initiative proposes that a comparatively less energetic tourist destination provides fewer leisure opportunities for visitors; however, when coupled with an event that is liked by most people visiting the destinations would certainly develop and add value to a strong brand image for the destination. It is important to note that benchmarking in the tourism industry is categorised by laying stress on improving performance related factors across the destinations (Woober, Kozak). If designed efficiently and utilized tactically, organization of events might be capable of generating economic profits along with community advantages in favour of the host society. However, in cases where the events are poorly planned and designed the host communities are subjected to the risk of loosing out on a vital economic opening, and perhaps even undergo some degradation in brand images and financial costs. Nevertheless, it may be said that the ostensible destination branding events result in increased tourism opportunities in the long run.
An event portfolio is comprised of two attributes: the hosting city/cities and event/events (Jaiswal, 2003). A grand event might not be able to provide long lasting impact on the destination’s brand but an assortment of smaller local events year round may be able to catch the attention of tourist towards a particular destination. It may be said without doubt that the competence of a certain event portfolio influences the choice of a visitor to select a particular destination significantly.
Several prior researches have already established that there exists a synergy amongst a destination and events as an effective marketing tool. A tourism marketer is always required to construct an events portfolio with regards to a particular destination and should utilize organisation of events as brand building instrument. As events attract those visitors who have keen interests in leisure activities, a tourism marketer or the designer of an events portfolio should decide on a targeted tourist section.
Events have the ability to disseminate a constructive brand image for a particular event hosting destination. This brand identity is influenced a great deal by advertisement. It boosts responsiveness and has the capability of transforming attitudes in terms of the perceived image of a particular brand. Advertising an event in addition to promoting the destination is necessary to reach the targeted tourists.
Events are usually reported by the media and they provide information regarding the destinations where events are held and thus in a sense market the predominant characteristics of that place. In contrast to compensated advertising of a certain destination, media reporting with reference to an event and the host destination of that event is an entire journalistic process with reference to coverage. Thus it is extremely important that authorities make sure that the events, its pre-event processes, as well as after event impacts are covered by the media.
Above all there should be good and effective means of accessing a certain destination via air routes, railway networks or other mode of transportations. Premium hotels should be able to cater to the needs of the tourists belonging to every category.
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