Tourism is the collective activities people participate in by traveling and staying in places different from their familiar environment for business, leisure, or other purposes but not for more than a year. Due to various competitive and dynamic aspects, the tourism industry requires frequent changes to adapt to the desires and needs for customer satisfaction and safety (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2018). This paper will examine how different sectors affect tourism activities globally. Internal and external factors have impacts on this sector due to the stakeholders that are mandated to manage the segment. Their roles will be analysed according to the contributions that they add. Other extraneous factors such as climate change will be addressed to gauge their impact on the tourism sector. Different methods that can be applied to ensure that key operations run smoothly within the target sector and how different stakeholders take part to ensure quality will be analysed. This paper also tries to identify challenges that tourists encounter in their trips and ways that can be used to handle or overcome them. When tourism sector adapts to the discussed changes, it will remain competitive in the business.
Nature of Tourism Future Development
The nature of tourism in the future will be determined by geopolitical, human, technological, economic and environmental attributes. These factors, will force managers of different tourist organisation change their strategies for them to be competitive across relevant global markets. These changes will be driven by high technological advancements that may result in poor information management, thus, causing an increase in data breach risks and, possibly, the threat of cyber terrorism in the near future. Therefore, there will be a need for the businesses to have a strategic plan on how organisations can implement and manage these changes to suit their customers’ demands. Such advancements will generate more ideas for maintaining the performance within the tourism sector while strengthening the industry’s competitive nature. In addition, it is vital for the tourism sector to expand, considering new destinations and allowing customers to enjoy new experiences. By the year 2040, the number of cruise and airline passengers will have doubled the number of their destinations in different parts of the world (Elliott, 2021). Traveling will be made efficient due to the technological upgrades implemented in various airports, including instant check-ins that use facial recognition. is. With the rapid advancement of technology, there is the possibility that the transportation system will experience significant changes, to which the tourism industry will have to adjust, thus, providing its customers with more comfortable experiences and faster services.
The world is transitioning at a fast rate, which results in changing the dynamics of traditional tourism trends. The traditional lifestyles and values are rapidly being altered, leading to people’s need to gain new experience. Domestic tourism is contributing not as much to the national economy as it does to the local economy, which causes local hotels and tourist destinations to explore the ways in which they can satisfy domestic tourist needs (Hall, Scott and Gössling, 2020). Indigenous attractions, which include sites such as national parks, beaches, historical sites, and protected areas which are preferred by the locals, represent one of the few options. With well-developed management systems, these sites will increase the extent of tourist attraction in the future.
Many nations are developing plans that have been fashioned by tourism in the past. City tourism is becoming one of the fastest growing sectors and has been changing at an increasingly fast pace by adapting to the ever-changing needs of tourisms. With many residents living in urban areas, there is a need to develop the social infrastructure to enhance mobility. Additionally, for c tourism to be supported and sustained on a nationwide level, local companies need to ensure a high level of tourist satisfaction and meaningful experience to secure the future rates of performance among tourist agencies.
To ensure increased tourism development in the future, stakeholders and political leaders should look for viable solutions and encourage worldwide participation. Tourism organizations should respect local communities’ culture and traditions, uphold their cultural values, and promote intercultural relations, tolerance, and understanding (Richards, 2018). A country with diverse artistic practices attracts different kinds of tourists, and hence, supporting these cultures is an added advantage to the industry development. Different cultures create a vast range of interactions that can influence international trade. With so many technological advancements, such as social media platforms, there is increased understanding of how to make tourism destinations attractive and provide customer support that enables people to interact freely with their new environments. The specified approach has helped the tourism organizations to make clients’ experience more fun and reliable in most sub-Saharan countries. As soon as the COVID-19 pandemic ends, the tourism industry will be revived, so that tourists can start their adventures again.
Challenges in the Future of Tourism
Travel and tourism are among the volatile industries that are known worldwide with a wide range of challenges. Globalisation and changes in global relationships have made it difficult to define the borders between the residents and tourists. The observed fact can be attributed to tourists having blended with the local populations while adapting to their cultures. In the past, tourists only visited the designated areas and tourist hotspots; however, recently, some have started seeking a local and authentic experience. As a result, tourists quickly develop the taste for local entertainment, retail infrastructures, and amenities (Bock, 2015). This might spark some problems with the local residents when local pubs are transformed into high-end consumer practices rejecting ordinary citizens. Residential areas and businesses will lose their identity while adapting to the lucrative tourist demands. When the tourist is treated better than the locals, problems can arise, such as discrimination, which may hinder further interactions between tourists and local residents, causing an increase in the cultural tension and create the environment of hostility. Tourism implies creating a unique e multicultural experience, in the course of which all parties can reconcile and create harmonic relationships, hence the need to ensure peaceful interactions.
Political instability can hugely harm the tourism sector, with many activities paralysed due to security issues. Insecurity has a negative impact on the economy since tourists contribute to the economic growth of a country. When a country is politically unsafe, it closes doors to new visitors from other countries due to the threats associated with a politically insecure environment (Butler, 2018). In instances that involve the lack of political safety, the government needs to ensure security and political stability to promote tourism activities. When tourists visit insecure places without protection, they become particularly vulnerable to theft and pickpocketing, which tarnishes the name of the country that they are visiting. The scandalous instances involving crimes against tourists can end the positive relations that the country had established with the outside world. In turn, to amend the situation, the government has to upgrade the security measures.
Globalisation is another issue that is spreading at a high rate is affecting a range of tourist destinations. Due to globalisation, originality is lacking in the tourism industry, which means that stakeholders need to be creative and develop better ways to maintain the industry. Globalisation may force poor countries to upgrade their standards to meet the high demands of the tourist from rich countries. Tourism should be able to cater for the needs of their clients without external assistance; however, with the advent of globalisation, the situation has changed.
High technological advancements come with a price to pay in every economic sector, and tourism will not be left behind. Taxation will be a challenge to both tourist agencies and tourism industry at large. There are high taxation rates in the hotels, airports that discourage visitors from outside the country. These problems can be solved if the government implements solutions to reduce the tax rates to attract more tourists. Additionally, economic uncertainties can influence tourism when the market price is high, and they cannot cope with the high standards of living. Occasionally, it rises beyond their budgetary plans making it hard for them to stay longer than planned.
Climate change is another challenge and risk that tourists may encounter in their endeavours. Without enough knowledge of the climatic conditions of a particular region, one might develop severe health issues due to unfavourable conditions. Moreover, some tourist attraction sites need prior planning due to infrastructure concerns. For example, in exotic areas, where tourists come to enjoy nature, the patterns of animal migration and the changes therein must be taken into consideration.. Such occurrences are common around the Kenya Tanzania border, where wild beasts cross boundaries during extreme conditions (Bock, 2015). Without proper planning, one can fail to see these animals, and their tour would not be as fulfilling as they had planned. With appropriate planning, the tour company can provide enjoyable services to the guest without failure. The ability to forecast weather changes is an essential factor for tourists as they choose their destination.
Tourism Sustainable Development Goals
Tourism covers a broad scope when it comes to future goals concerning sustainable developments. The primary purpose of sustainable development in tourism is to increase the advantages and reduce negative impacts caused by tourism activities. The only way that this can be achieved is by developing and managing tourism activities while protecting the natural environments, wildlife, and natural resources. Should the instances of mismanagement occur, they can negatively affect the local environment and communities, resulting in long-term issues for the locals, hence a decline in tourism activities.
Sustainable tourism can be attained by protecting wildlife and natural resources when managing and developing tourism activities. This will maintain beauty in the attraction sites and local communities. Moreover, giving tourists authentic experiences that celebrate, promote, and conserve cultural heritage can aid in achieving sustainable developments in the future (Kimbu and Tichaawa, 2018).Specifically, the described step can lead to creating opportunities such as income earning and employment opportunities for the socio-economic community. Tourism can also contribute to sustainable development goals by reducing the extent of poverty within certain areas. Since this is one of the fastest-growing industries worldwide as people have developed the urge to explore other places, it is well suited to foster economic growth and development. Thus, economic growth can be achieved by creating job opportunities at the community level leading to reduced poverty levels among the locals.
For the tourism sector to prosper, a skilled workforce is necessary. This division can provide incentives to ensure that training and education are provided to all those interested in it. Such inducements benefit the marginalised people in the community, including children, women, people living with disabilities, and senior citizens. Moreover, tourism can help in empowering women in the local areas in a couple of ways, such as through the provision of jobs and promoting their work, which may include beading and constructing. They can also help local residents to establish income-generating businesses, including both large and small scale ones (Bock, 2015). Tourism can be a tool for assisting marginalized citizens in unlocking and utilising their potential, and becoming valuable members of society.
Another way tourism would contribute to sustainable development would be by urging the government to upgrade the infrastructure leading to the tourist destination sites. This sector relies on private and public infrastructure while considering an innovative environment. Additionally, such endeavours help facilitate sustainable industrialisation necessary for innovation, development, and economic growth. Moreover, if a city is not safe for the people living in it, it will not be suitable for tourism activities. Advancements in urban infrastructure will create secured neighbourhoods that will protect citizens residing within its bounds. Tourism has a significant role in climate change as it contributes to it and is also affected by it. Changing the course to renewable energies and lowering energy consumption rates more so in the accommodation and transport sectors, can be advantageous in dealing with this situation.
Coastal and marine tourism for small developing states depend on pristine maritime ecosystems. To sustain it, tourism has to focus on maintaining healthy and clean ecosystems and act as the driving force towards promoting the blue economy. As tourists travel around the globe, they encounter people of different cultural backgrounds. This sector can be used as a tool to foster interfaith tolerance, diversification of cultures, and understanding, setting a pace for more peaceful societies. Engaging the social communities entails sustainable tourism benefiting the local communities while providing a source of livelihood. An increase in entrepreneurial activities sparks the need to settle conflicts by introducing new and effective ways to handle violence when it arises and consolidate peace. Lastly, sustainable development goals can be achieved through strengthening the means to revitalise and implement global partnerships. Due to its international nature, tourism can improve public or private partnerships while engaging various stakeholders in working together to achieve the tourism sustainable development goals.
Global Factors That Can Shape Tourism in the Future
Extreme weather conditions ranging from drought to flooding have been observed in different countries because of climate change. Many people have been forced to abandon their homes due to floods,, more so in sub-Saharan Africa (Siddiqui and Imran, 2019). Tourism in many continents implies visitations to the mountain and beaches. These are the most affected areas by climate change hence putting tourism at risk and could result to market changes. Tourists in different tour sites experience weather that influences their holiday satisfaction and their activities (Dogru et al., 2019). On other occasions, weather affects the extent and frequency of tourism activities and shapes different aspects of tourism, such as infrastructure, operating cost, and activity programming.
Climate can be described as the average weather conditions for a particular location. Moreover, climate can vary from one place to the other. Tourists focus on what climatic conditions they plan to expect at their destinations while forgetting the aspect of weather that might interrupt their plans. Climate change refers to the variations in the climate state, which can be seasonal or spatial extending for an extended period (Amelung, Nicholls, and Viner, 2007). Climate change can be caused by either internal processes or external forces that can include fluctuation in solar energy or anthropogenic changes in the atmosphere. Climate affects tourism activities as some events, such as sport tourism, require specific weather conditions. When choosing a destination, knowledge of climate aspects of the region is vital in providing travel motivation and defining the extent of satisfaction for the tourists.
The tourism sector is affected significantly by climatic change, while also contributing to climate change significantly. Climate action is the measure to curb greenhouse gas emissions while formulating plans to strengthen adaptive capacity to climate persuaded influences. According to Rosselló-Nadal (2014), global warming in colder countries would favour domestic tourism as people would be able to get the needed satisfaction under such weather in different destinations. Some animals, such as bears, would be hibernating, which could last for several months. These climate changes will force the tourism activities to change their focus on areas with high latitude. To handle the issue of climate change, tourism industry should be urged to reduce carbon pollutions and adapt to the consequences of global warming we are currently experiencing. Some ways climate change can be controlled include, formulate policies that fight climate change, engage businesses in reduction of carbon emissions and educate people on how they can adapt to the change.
Overtourism is a term that has come to our attention in the recent past and has raised questions about the future of tourism. It reflects on the challenges the tourism industry might face in managing growing tourism flow into the estimated destinations. This aspect has been associated with several myths, including tourism congestion. Tourism congestion should not be described as the number of visitors to a particular city; instead, is should be seen as the ability to manage them (Milano et al., 2018. Specific cities are capable of handling large numbers of visitors while others struggle to manage the domestic tourists. Overtourism in cities can be caused by seasonality, which attracts many tourists at a certain period of the year, and adverse visitor impact, which in many instances is viewed negatively. The congestion in different business premises, on roads, noise and other disturbances associated with tourism activities. Additionally, the physical impact affects the economy significantly, ranging from the over-proliferation of retail and hotel services.
Congestion is a local problem and not a nationwide issue as it affects the locality in which the destined tourisms activities have targeted. These include the main attraction sites and popular areas in the city or outskirts of the capital. In these cities, tourists constitute a significant percentage of the population as some have the exploration spirit and need to enjoy every moment of their stay. Overtourism is not a tourist-only problem since it can also be associated with the locals, who overuse and overload social services and infrastructure (Visentin, 2019). Addressing the issue of overtourism is a complicated task that requires an unorthodox approach to solve it.
Intelligent solutions and technological advancements alone will not address the problem of overtourism. Smart solutions are considered the most appropriate way of solving congestion problems, but when overtourism is considered, they are not the best match to solve these problems. Managing the overtourism concern requires more cooperation between different stakeholders, especially when they have conflicting interests. The growth of tourism in urban areas and rapid urbanisation have defined high demand in urban tourism, attracting visitors both locally and internationally. Some tourism trends, including the growing middle class and increased need for mobility and affordable accommodation and transport facilities, are the stimulating factors for urban tourism.
Mobility and tourism are interconnected since both imply movement from a place of residence to the planned pleasure or tour destination is the essential condition of tourism. According to La Rocca (2015), tourism cannot occur without people’s movement from one place to another. Researchers adds that tourism mobility accounts for 5% of carbon dioxide emissions into the environment, and transformation in styles of tourism is vital. These changes will help averting climate change in areas that are not yet affected (Signorile et al., 2018). Tourism has a critical role in ensuring that mobility is provided to the intended attraction site.
Therefore, the improvement of infrastructure in the rural areas to enhance manoeuvring into the interior should be interpreted as one of the main goals of sustainable tourism. Enhanced infrastructures will also increase the decentralisation of services and amenities such as hospitals in marginalised areas. When such amenities are provided in the interior, it attracts more development plans like the creation of a business that, in the end, will lead to raising the country economically (Tripathy et al., 2018). Government should invest in mobility structures to enhance access to every part of the country. With sustainable development, a state can attract tourists from all over the world. Encouraging visitors to use different modes of transport will lower the number of emissions released into the environment. These transportation modes include car sharing, walking, cycling, or fuel-efficient transport systems such as electric motorcycles and vehicles.
Sustainability in tourism encompasses respecting the culture of the people and the safety of the environment. Sustainable tourism should foster the growth of the local communities around them, but this does not happen in most instances. Many people travel in a large group due to the reduced cost of booking hotels and modes of transport. On several occasions, sustainable development helps to provide employment opportunities to the locals while taking care of the local ecosystems (Alvarez-Sousa, 2018). Moreover, a sustainable approach helps in mitigating the threats that may arise due to over-tourism.
Sustainability in tourism is essential as it allows developing countries to address crises in economically struggling areas. Tourism accounts for an increase in development plans in the marginalised areas as they gain much from these improvements. Their contribution to these developments helps it to sustain tourism activities for longer periods, leading to expansion and may attract settlement in such areas. When tourists visit countries with increased pollution rates, the government seeks the ways in which these pollutants can be eliminated, leading to clean and safe environments (Sánchez-Fernández et al., 2019). To formulate an excellent sustainable plan, the local and the tourism sectors should participate harmoniously in the planning and decision-making of the best practices to consider. In addition, the individuals working in the industry should be aware of the skills that can be used to develop economic, social, and ecological aspects.
Being aware of one’s cultural specifics can be an advantage in maintaining sustainable tourism as it will attract tourists globally. There is a need to preserve certain most influential cultures, such as the Maasai culture of Kenya and Tanzania (Maingi, 2019). Residents should advertise their country professionally to increase its popularity and entice tourists to choose it as a destination in their plans. This marketing strategy will attract many individuals through the internet as it is becoming an essential tool in selecting a visiting site. Local people need to be enlightened that, as much as they are happy having visitors who will increase the economy in their region, some come with factors that can impact the culture and environment negatively. When visitors are touring their destinations, they should be encouraged to minimise littering, avoid jeopardizing the wildlife, stay loyal to the local people and advocate staying in the cheap hotels to promote socialisation.
Ethically Informed Sustainable Tourism Futures
Tourism in some countries is the backbone of the economy, and without it, the country’s economy would crumble. Sustainable tourism is possible, but this requires fundamental changes in the systems, operations and philosophies that run the tourism sector. To do that, the stakeholders tasked with managing the tourism sector should abide by some of the following protocols. These include sustainable tourism alternatives that relieve the burden on populated tourist destinations. One can achieve this by traveling during off-season.
Secondly, reducing the carbon footprint of a country can help in promoting sustainable tourism. It is estimated that aircraft were liable for 9% of greenhouse emissions by 2016 (Siakwah et al., 2020). Tourists are encouraged to take direct flights instead of lay offers to minimise the carbon footprints. Additionally, rejecting illegal trade can sustain tourism as promoting local businesses help in circulating the money in the local economy, and in return, jobs are created.
Moreover, taking care of heritage sites means that sustainability is ensured in the tourism sector. Such sites are visited by many people yearly, and ensuring they are intact and in good conditions, others will enjoy the visit. Graffiti should be discouraged as it tampers with the authenticity and originality of the site. These sights are also often old and fragile; hence, they can become sensitive to touch and break easily, and so, tourists should be instructed on how to proceed by the tour guide. In addition, tourists are encouraged to challenge themselves by moving out of their comfort zones, specifically, taking short walks out of their hotels and meeting the locals, and exchanging views that may be cultural or economic.
When tourists support community-based initiatives, they create a sense of sustainability for the locals. Such initiatives may include joining the community in their leisure sports, buying food from local farmers, and even joining local residents in their activities during tourist season. As a result, the extent of socializing will increase, and an exchange of culturally rich ideas will occur. Lastly, when tourists respect the practices of the locals, they should show admiration and remain discreet during prayers in temples, churches, or mosques. If such factors are considered, future sustainable tourism will be secured.
Recommendations to Emerging and Future Tourism Problems
Tourist Management Systems
The COVID-19 pandemic is causing extraordinary changes in the economic sectors globally due to its impacts in making it hard for tourism operations. Many businesses and individuals working in this sector have been affected as some have lost their jobs, and multiple businesses have been shut down. The industry has raised concerns to combat the pandemic by focusing on hygiene and public health to minimise the pandemic’s spread. With tourist management systems, users can access all the information such as weather, events, and locations about the planned destination. The described tool will help company owners manage their hotels and customers efficiently.
Being able to manage tourists is vital for every organisation to remain competitive in the sector. For organisations to achieve the specified goal, they need to implement the latest technologies that are easily accessible to everyone and link them to viable customers (Kruczek et al., 2018). Additional innovative technologies can be implemented in big firms to help market the tourist activities they provide. Furthermore, the government should be at the forefront in establishing real relationships with the outside world. This relationship will help to attract visitors that will help improve the country’s economic scale. The government, local authorities, and stakeholders should work harmoniously in formulating systems that can improve the tourism experience of visitors (Stankov and Filimonau, 2019). Such incidents are meant to maintain a continuous flow of visitors.
Indicator tools are vital for every organisation in controlling, measuring, and steering the company’s search engine optimisation methods. Tourism is viewed as one of the critical sectors in improving the economic status and creating jobs, income and wealth. It also promotes the perception and image of a country internationally (Ruan, 2019). This kind of importance and influence attracts challenges in trying to measure the competition level in tourism.
Setting measurable goals and strategies can help indicator systems identify the faulty methods that need change. Gauging the impact, the tourism sector has on the economy can help analyse the possible ways that can help improve the provision of services to achieve total customer satisfaction. In tourism, indicators can be improved by ensuring customer satisfaction is provided to maintain the margin (Lozano-Oyola, 2019). Achieving these indicators in this industry, cooperation between the government and the local authorities as benefits gained from the sector benefit both entities. Having indicator systems that enhance sustainability leads to strategic planning, which can steer the nation to optimise its methods.
Policy and Planning Approaches
Addressing problems associated with the tourism industry calls for a unified method to strategic change in many government sectors. Since tourism is vital in a nation’s economy and failure to find solutions to problems it might be facing, can cost the whole country economic downfall. Stakeholders need to come together and formulate ways to tackle dominant and rising issues to encourage more visitors into the country (Blázquez-Salom, 2019). In developing the planning process and policies, it is essential to involve the stakeholders and government in implementing a sustainable and long-term vision for the tourism sector.
One way to achieve the policy and planning approaches is by setting achievable and measurable goals. Having such a strategy can help the stakeholders weigh the possible problems that may arise and formulate potential solutions (Hall, 2019). Moreover, engaging the tourism industry in the management and planning process will help advise the government on possible ways that can be incorporated in the sector to make tourism have a better experience for the tourists.
The tourism sector has an immense contribution to a country’s economy, and it is the responsibility of every nation to take measures to eliminate barriers that can hinder its effectiveness. Tourism has vast contributions to the country, ranging from infrastructure development, cultural diversification, and creating international relations with the outside world. It has led to the creation of job opportunities for many individuals, making it the responsibility of every citizen to conserve the tourist attraction sites for future generations.
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