Oceans contribute to atmospheric change across various periods, from geological and centuries to natural variability and inter-annual, utilizing several evolutionary selection and communication frameworks. Due to the oceans’ propensity to absorb energy and greenhouse pollutants, they have somewhat mitigated (neutralized) the impacts of rising amounts of human-made atmospheric emissions such as carbon dioxide during the last 200 years (Wang, 2019). There is, nonetheless, ample proof that a number of the systems that add to this cushioning function have changed, in some instances, virtually surely as a consequence of global warming. These mechanisms offer a variety of favorable (strengthening) or adverse (mitigating) reactions to rising temperatures. In the past, the critical function that the oceans served in controlling atmospheric temperatures and, in particular, the spillover processes that have the capability to and, in some instances, may already be worsening environmental issues have received little attention (Wang, 2019). Consequently, this article examines the effects of oceans on the atmosphere.
Impacts of Oceanic Activities on the Atmosphere
Effect on Climate
Both the ecological and physical mechanisms of the seas influence the climate. In addition, interactions between natural and human activities create a sophisticated network. The ocean and the atmosphere transmit the same heat from the Sun’s severely warmed equatorial areas to the cooler high latitudes. The atmosphere carries heat through a complex, global system of winds; when these winds move over the ocean’s surface, they generate comparable ocean circulation patterns (Guan et al., 2019). However, ocean tides travel more gradually than breezes and have a greater ability to store heat. Winds promote circulation patterns, transporting warm water over the open sea to the latitudes.
The physiological cycle, biological activity in the ocean that affects carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere, also influences climate. Oceanic biological production is a generator and a sponge for , one of the climate-regulating greenhouse gases (GHC). When microalgae transform and minerals into polysaccharides, the biological pump occurs, reducing carbon (Guan et al., 2019). A small amount of this carbon sequestration sinks to the ocean bottom, where it is interred in particles and may remain submerged for millions of years. Oil is just carbon that has been reduced and confined in layers for millions of years (Guan et al., 2019). Through photosynthesis, tiny microorganisms convert and other nutrients, including phosphate, nitrate, and silicate, into hydrocarbons, such as carbs and proteins, and produce oxygen into the atmosphere.
Storage and Transfer of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
Oceans play a crucial role in the storage and transmission of . The oceans are the principal source of the atmospheric , annually absorbing roughly 40 percent of human from the atmosphere and transferring carbon to the ocean depths repository through biogeochemical mechanisms (Hori et al., 2019). Human-caused pollutants have already surpassed 7 GtC (gigatonnes of carbon) per year (Hori et al., 2019). The vulnerability of atmosphere and or ocean carbon cycle interactions is especially noticeable. Improvements in Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and alterations in biological frameworks and ocean circulation may reduce the oceans’ capacity to absorb . Investigations of the seas and assessments of climatic greenhouse gases during the last several decades indicate a deterioration in the ion concentration of the oceans in certain locations (Hori et al., 2019). A slowdown of the ocean bottom and any significant modification to the various ocean carbon exchangers might result in a rise in atmospheric levels and accelerated atmospheric crisis.
The polar areas are believed to be more vulnerable to natural disasters on a global scale, and many signs of this have been found. For instance, there have been significant decreases in Arctic sea ice, Fast Ocean warming in the Antarctic Peninsula, and various Antarctic ice pillars disintegrating (Fasullo et al., 2018). In recent years, Arctic sea ice has receded fast, but Antarctic sea ice has exhibited a more geographical variation, falling in some regions while expanding in others and showing a slight overall rise. Much of the ancient multi-year glacier in the Arctic has melted, resulting in lighter, fresher ice in its place. The disintegration of Greenland’s ice cap and the emission of methane, a strong greenhouse gas, might be triggered by the disintegration of sea ice (Fasullo et al., 2018). In the Arctic, the release of methane from aquatic and coastal reservoirs is especially likely to lead to atmospheric change’s positive reinforcement consequences.
Territorial sea-ice variations in the Southern Ocean can alter the production of thick waters, which has ramifications for the absorption of from the atmosphere as well as oceanic warmth and freshwater exchanges. Fasullo et al. (2018) reported that the capacity of the circumpolar Southern Ocean to store carbon has diminished over the last several decades, increasing atmospheric ; nonetheless, this phenomenon is still being studied. If the geographical mean temperature rise over Greenland exceeds a certain threshold, expected to be above pre-industrial levels, the continuous shrinking of the Greenland ice sheet would be catastrophic (Fasullo et al., 2018). Without a significant reduction of carbon emissions, global warming might reach this number throughout the twenty-first century, resulting in the melting of the ice sheet and a rise of several meters in sea level over a period that is predicted to last hundreds to millennia. A very slight increase in world average temperature has caused the present process of progress in the Arctic and its dynamic responses.
Oceans impact the overall composition of heat available in the atmosphere through various mechanisms, as discussed below. The oceans, which include 97 percent of the earth’s water and 71 percent of its surface, are the primary heat reservoir for the planet (Su et al., 2018). In the past several years, there has been a significant and increasing rise in ocean warming and an expansion in latent heat, which impacts cyclical and decadal climatology, thermal conduction, ocean circulation, division, biology, and nutrient cycling. All of these ocean elements may result in atmosphere change mechanisms. The principal favorable feedback is caused by increasing temperatures and shifting salt content (Su et al., 2018). Therefore, warmer concentrations are triggering the melting of Arctic sea ice, which filters down to heating and global warming via several pathways, including the possible release of the strong greenhouse gas (GHG) methane.
Ocean modifications have resulted in the growth of subtropical and tropical stratified, stacked waters and changed air patterns and ocean circulation. Together, these transformations are likely to have resulted in a net decrease in absorption by the ocean. However, the growth of suboxic strata in the tropics and the Atlantic Ocean, but not in the Indian Ocean, may boost the conservation of organic materials and serve as sponge (Su et al., 2018). Rising temperatures have contributed to rising sea levels via heat flux of the oceans and the melting of polar ice caps and glaciers. Some of these responses may be exacerbated by CO2’s acidification of the oceans.
Temperature and Salinity
Water is a very effective heat sink. The heat collected by water during the day or the summer is dissipated at night or during the cold season; however, oceanic temperature also circulates. The dropping of surface water into the ocean depths is governed by temperature and concentration, which influences long-term global warming. The seas also absorb and transmit heat and CO2 primarily via this process. Temperature and salinity variations cause the ocean’s worldwide movement, often known as the Global Conveyor Belt (Li et al., 2020). High tides transport the energy in the ocean to high elevations, where it is emitted into the atmosphere.
Colder weather in equatorial regions causes water to condense, making it thicker. In some locations, such as the far North Atlantic, the water gets thick enough to sink when the ocean is very salty (Li et al., 2020). As a result of blending in the seafloor caused by storms and waves, cold water returns to the top across the ocean. Some rise to the surface through the production line of worldwide ocean water motion to recirculate. CO2 is also carried throughout this cycle of cold and warm water. CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed by cold water, some of which descends to the ocean’s depths. When deep tropical water rises to the surface, it warms and releases CO2 into the atmosphere.
In conclusion, oceans significantly contribute to atmospheric transformation across various timescales, from geological and millennia to biological variability and inter-annual, utilizing many evolutionary divergences and transmission processes. The ocean and atmosphere transfer the same amount of heat from the Sun’s intensely heated equatorial regions to the colder high latitudes. These winds flow across the ocean’s surface and produce similar ocean circulation patterns. The oceans have a key role in CO2 storage and transport. As such, they are the primary generator of CO2 in the atmosphere. Oceans influence the overall composition of accessible heat in the climate since they are the earth’s natural principal heat storage. Extreme temperature changes create the ocean’s global movement, while high tides convey the ocean’s vitality to high altitudes, where it is released into the atmosphere.
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