Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Healthy People 2020


Diabetes represents one of the biggest health issues across the globe because it constantly increases the amount of monetary expenses while also lowering the overall quality of life. Another reason to consider this disease is the cumulative prevalence of death caused by diabetes and its health-related consequences (Magkos et al., 2020). General statistics on diabetes show that almost four million patients worldwide die because of this condition. Diabetes also causes complications linked to cardiovascular diseases that impact human health in a significantly negative manner. The worst factor associated with diabetes is that it could cause other chronic metabolic diseases to develop over time, shortening human life expectancy. The current paper will provide a detailed account of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, cover the epidemiology of T2D, link Healthy People 2020 to the disease, and share a community-wide intervention strategy.

Background, Overview, and Significance of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The most common reason for the advent of T2D is when the level of blood glucose becomes too high to be managed by the organism properly. Given that the amount of insulin becomes insufficient to transport all the glucose to human body cells, an abundant amount of glucose stays in the blood, not being able to reach the cells (Hawley et al., 2020). Most importantly, lots of blood glucose comes from the food one tends to eat.

The primary target population for T2D is the cohort of patients aged from 18 to 29 with a BMI greater than 25 living in [INSERT YOUR LOCATION]. Also, there are certain genetic factors contributing to the development of T2D, but researchers often resort to the idea that dietary patterns, physical activity, and behavioral interventions are much more important (Sattar et al., 2019). Family history is also crucial when looking at the potential outcomes of T2D because even people without excessive weight can develop diabetes mellitus. The majority of T2D cases develop in older people, but contemporary children are affected by T2D much more often nowadays.

The significance of T2D can be highlighted by the complications that can be associated with this health issue. For example, there is a rather high risk of the development of heart and blood vessel disease due to atherosclerosis (Cosentino et al., 2020). Also, Palacios et al. (2019) claim that T2D could lead to various pains in limbs or an eventual loss of feeling due to consistent nerve damage, also known as neuropathy. Other nerve damage could be done to the human body through the interface of T2D, as the digestive system could malfunction, and erectile dysfunction in males could be instigated.

Epidemiological Data of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The prevalence of T2D continues to increase worldwide, and it also contributes to the number of human deaths and injuries per annum. The severity of diabetes-related cases is also managed poorly because T2D affects the community in a rather disproportionate manner. For example, the epidemic of diabetes tends to take a larger toll on the countries in Western Europe (Gomes et al., 2019). There are issues that can be associated with funding, policing, and economic incentives which cannot be ignored when discussing the effect of T2D on communities. Thus, prevention programs can be deemed unhelpful unless unhealthy foods get taxed or disincentivized (Gruss et al., 2019). The lack of social connections also leads to an increase in the number of patients with T2D because they do not gain access to the required education and training. The burden of diabetes is going to prevail because of rapid urbanization, a sedentary lifestyle, and the popularity of unhealthy foods.

Application of HP 2020 for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The primary objective of the Healthy People 2020 (HP 2020) initiative is to limit the occurrence of T2D across the United States and mitigate most of the negative outcomes that are caused by relevant comorbidities. There are additional health issues are often associated with T2D, such as risk of cancer, incontinence, and cognitive impairment (Hawley et al., 2020). The existence of various therapies does not fully protect T2D patients from dangerous health outcomes, and it shows that the risks are too major to be ignored. This is also why HP 2020 includes lifestyle changes as one of the key contributors to managing the comorbidities identified above. Public health approaches have to be enhanced as well, paving the way for better prevention efforts that can cause positive outcomes in all ethnic and racial groups (Gruss et al., 2019). This is why so much attention is paid to the National Diabetes Prevention Program and the implications it instigates nationwide. Additionally, HP 2020 stimulates new research in the field of T2D by launching more prevention programs in community settings (Sattar et al., 2019). Large-scale randomized control trials will be required to cope with the multiplying number of risk factors that arise in the case of a developing case of T2D.

Population-Level Prevention

In order to achieve positive results in the field of diabetes prevention, more community health workers have to be attracted to frontline interventions. A bridge between the healthcare system and underserved communities has to be developed in order to promote research and innovative methods of mitigating T2D (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022). The main reason to include community health workers is their unique understanding of the needs that local patients might showcase. Volunteers could be approached to popularize health-related initiatives and ensure that all community members gain enough insight into how T2D could change their life for the worse (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2022; Hawley et al., 2020). Additionally, effective community-wide interventions should include an educational element that would touch upon physical activity, diet improvement, and weight management (Magkos et al., 2020). Thus, high-risk patients would have access to community support and all the content required to launch a community-based educational program. A variety of health professionals should be involved in the program, including clinicians, counselors, and volunteers.


The growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes makes it safe to say that more coordinated efforts have to be carried out urgently to prevent deaths and severe injuries in various groups of patients. The primary step for the care providers would be to review the effectiveness of ongoing medical treatment and introduce reasonable changes in the case where the incidence of diabetes does not go down over time. At the same time, the future of high-risk patients depends on rigorous research conducted by healthcare scholars willing to improve community wellbeing. The increasing magnitude of the diabetes epidemic shows that more collaborative efforts have to be exerted if policy-related and environmental changes are expected to occur. Based on the information from Healthy People 2020, it can be safe to say that an improved state of affairs has to be sustained with the aid of multidisciplinary approaches that will involve more specialists from the field of public health care and other dimensions.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022). Healthy People 2020: Topics and Objectives, Diabetes. Web.

Cosentino, F., Cannon, C. P., Cherney, D. Z., Masiukiewicz, U., Pratley, R., Dagogo-Jack, S.,… & VERTIS CV Investigators. (2020). Efficacy of ertugliflozin on heart failure-related events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: Results of the VERTIS CV Trial. Circulation, 142(23), 2205-2215.

Gomes, M. B., Rathmann, W., Charbonnel, B., Khunti, K., Kosiborod, M., Nicolucci, A.,… & Ji, L. (2019). Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus worldwide: Baseline patient characteristics in the global DISCOVER study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 151, 20-32.

Gruss, S. M., Nhim, K., Gregg, E., Bell, M., Luman, E., & Albright, A. (2019). Public health approaches to type 2 diabetes prevention: The US National Diabetes Prevention Program and beyond. Current Diabetes Reports, 19(9), 1-11.

Hawley, J. A., Sassone-Corsi, P., & Zierath, J. R. (2020). Chrono-nutrition for the prevention and treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes: From mice to men. Diabetologia, 63(11), 2253-2259.

Magkos, F., Hjorth, M. F., & Astrup, A. (2020). Diet and exercise in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 16(10), 545-555.

Palacios, O. M., Kramer, M., & Maki, K. C. (2019). Diet and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Beyond weight loss and exercise. Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism, 14(1), 1-12.

Sattar, N., Rawshani, A., Franz√©n, S., Rawshani, A., Svensson, A. M., Rosengren, A.,… & Gudbj√∂rnsdottir, S. (2019). Age at diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and associations with cardiovascular and mortality risks: Findings from the Swedish National Diabetes Registry. Circulation, 139(19), 2228-2237.

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