An essential element of scientific knowledge is the ways of carrying out a cognitive activity, that is, the diverse methods and techniques by which a person discovers new ability substantiates, proves, and systematizes what has already been obtained. The way is a more complex cognitive procedure than the technique, although sometimes these terms are used interchangeably in the literature. The choice of methodology can significantly influence the results of research. As it is known, medical research, in particular clinical trials, is an important part of medicine and can impact the healthcare system (What are clinical trials, 2020). Incorrect research results can mislead not only medical professionals but also other people. Usually, after conducting any survey, it is necessary to perform additional ones to ensure the results’ accuracy. It is best to test the results using different research methodologies to reach relevant conclusions.
Conducted studies on myopia, namely its occurrence in children, gave different results, as scientists used other methods. Quinn et al. (1999) found a strong association between myopia and nighttime ambient light exposure during sleep in children before the age of two years. They collected information from the parents of children treated as outpatients at an ophthalmology clinic by conducting a survey. In a questionnaire analysis, the prevalence of high myopia in childhood was strongly associated with ambient light exposure during nighttime sleep in the first two years after birth.
In a study by Zadnik et al. (2000), parents reported their use of night lighting and their refractive status. The child’s refractive error was measured using cycloplegic autorefraction (Zadnik et al., 2000). Thus, scientists have found a link between heredity, ethnicity, and a tendency to myopia. The results of this study provide more substantial evidence as they provide a higher measure of validity (Ma et al., 2020). On the other hand, there are significant differences between the studies, such as the age of the subjects. Therefore, both findings require more research to determine their possible connection.
Ma, L.-L., Wang, Y.-Y., Yang, Z.-H., Huang, D., Weng, H., & Zeng, X.-T. (2020). Methodological Quality (risk of bias) assessment tools for primary and secondary medical studies: What are they and which is better? Military Medical Research, 7(1).
Quinn, G. E., Shin, C. H., Maguire, M. G., & Stone, R. A. (1999). Myopia and ambient lighting at night. Nature, 399(6732), 113–114.
What are clinical trials and studies? (2020). National Institute on Aging.
Zadnik, K., Jones, L. A., Irvin, B. C., Kleinstein, R. N., Manny, R. E., Shin, J. A., & Mutti, D. O. (2000). Myopia and ambient night-time lighting. Nature, 404(6774), 143–144.